In 1781, Catherine the Great gave Yekaterinburg the status of a district town of Perm Province, and built the main road of the Empire, the Siberian Route, through the city.Yekaterinburg became a key city to Siberia, which had rich resources, and was known as the "window to Asia", a reference to Saint Petersburg as a "window to Europe".
On 19 October 1920, Yekaterinburg established its first university, the Ural State University, as well as polytechnic, pedagogical, and medical institutions under the decree of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.Enterprises in the city ravaged by the war were nationalized, including: the Metalist (formerly Yates) Plant, the Verkh-Isetsky (formerly Yakovleva) Plant, and the Lenin flax-spinning factory (formerly Makarov).It is located about 1,420 kilometres (880 mi) to the east of Moscow.Yekaterinburg was founded on 18 November 1723, named after Russian emperor Peter the Great's wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death, serving as the mining capital of the Russian Empire as well as a strategic connection between Europe and Asia at the time.During the Soviet era, Sverdlovsk was turned into an industrial and administrative powerhouse that played a part in the Soviet Union's economy.
In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the city changed its name back to its historical name of Yekaterinburg.
In the early hours of the morning of 17 July, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House.
Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day.
The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.
In the years following the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, political authority of the Urals was transferred from Perm to Yekaterinburg.
Excavations and research took place starting from the 20th century.